Tuesday, October 23, 2012

Lance Armstrong won't the last person to be caught cheating, Read how they find out

Analytical Reference Standards from Greyhound Chromatography

Stimulants, Anabolic Steroids and Agents, Diuretics, Peptide Hormones and Analogues are some of the substances that enhance athletic performance that are banned in sports.

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) introduced the first drug use controls at the 1968 Winter Olympics. These controls eventually evolved into a systematic testing regimen that all Olympic athletes must adhere to. Testing of athletes for performance enhancing drugs includes both urine and blood tests. As of 1999 the authoritative body on the use of performance enhancing drugs is the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). This organisation oversees the testing of athletes for several sports federations and the Olympic Games.

Doping control is a huge issue in sports performance today. Always a topical subject when high profile events are due to take place, the controversial subject is brought in to the media arena when events such as The Tour De France and the Olympic Games are in progress. Competitions where athletes are strictly monitored and tested attract media attention, particularly when athletes are found to be using substances that are on the banned list. However, testing takes place all over the world every day for every competitive sporting event. Headlines over recent years have included high profile sports personalities who have been banned from competing in their respective sports following mandatory tests, there has been some discussion about false positives being recorded because of an athlete’s body reacting with prescription drugs. This highlights the need for stringent testing, research and analysis.

Gas Chromatography is used extensively by testing laboratories to detect banned substances in blood and urine samples. The gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), which combines two analytical instruments, is most often used in drug testing. The GC (gas chromatograph) separates the ingredients of the mixture, and the mass spectrometer identifies them. To ensure that urine and blood samples from the athlete are sent to the laboratory in a way that ensures that they are identified to the individual giving the sample, without any possible confusion as to whom they belong, is a complex and closely regulated procedure. In most sports drug testing programs an official witness’s urination into a plastic cup, or the taking of a blood sample. The sample is then poured into bottles that are sealed to exclude contamination and tampering, and shipped to the testing laboratory. GC-MS analysis begins with sample preparation. Steps to remove water and salts and to concentrate target drugs can take several hours. Greyhound Chromatography, a Wirral based company, has been supplying Chromatography consumables to Research and Analysis laboratories for 30 years. Greyhound manufactures its own range of GC Capillary columns which includes over 1,000 different columns that are used for many different analyses, these include testing samples from athletes.

Upon injection into the GC, the sample is vaporized and swept along a hair-thin glass tube (capillary column) by a flow of inert gas such as helium. Different compounds travel at different speeds due to variations in boiling point, polarity, and solubility in the coating of the inner wall of the tube. The compounds exit the GC one by one, each at a different, characteristic time (the retention time), and enter the mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer breaks molecules into fragments and measures their mass-to-(electrical) charge ratio, m/z.

Fragmentation patterns can be interpreted to deduce the structure of an unknown molecule. In drug testing, because fragmentation patterns are characteristic and reproducible, a drug is identified and its presence confirmed by matching both its GC retention time and mass spectrum with those of an authentic reference standard. Greyhound Chromatography supplies Analytical Reference Standards of very high purity to ensure accurate detection of banned substances (over 100,000 standards are available as neat products, solutions and customised mixtures) and also supplies laboratory consumables including, GC Columns, Syringes, glassware, testing and analysis collection cups.

The science behind the analysis and detection of samples is straightforward, the moral and ethical arguments that surround athletes taking performance enhancing substances are not so simple and will be debated for as long as competitive sports are conducted.

Stimulants:
Amiphenazole
Amphetamine
Bemigride
Benzphetamine
Bromantan
Caffeine
Chlorphentermine
Cocaine
Cropropamide
Crothetamine
Dimethylamphetamine
Doxapram
Ephedrine
Ethamivan
Ethylamphetamine


Anabolic Agents:
Anabolic Steriods
Androstenediol
Androstenedione
Boldenone
Clostebol
Dehydrochlormethyltestosterone
Testosterone
Dehydroepiandrosterone
(DHEA)
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
Dromostanolone
Fluoxymesterone
Mesterolone
Methandienone
Methenolone


Diuretics:
Acetazolamide
Bendroflumethiazide
Benzthiazide
Bumetanide
Fencamfamine
meclofenoxate
methamphetamine
methylphenidate
nikethamide
pemoline
pentetrazol
phendimetrazine
phenmetrazine
picrotoxine
pipradol
prolintane
strychnine
and related compounds
methyltestosterone
nandrolone
norandrostendiol
norandrostenedione
norethandrolone
oxandrolone
oxymesterone
oxymetholonestanozolol
testosterone
and related compounds

Other Anabolic Agents
clenbuterol
hydroflumethiazide
methyclothiazide
metolazone
polythiazide

Chlorothiazide quinethazone
Chlorthalidone spironolactone
Ethacrynic acid triamterene
Flumethiazide trichlormethiazide
Furosemide and related compounds
Hydrochlorothiazide

Peptide Hormones and Analogues
Chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG-human chorionic gonadotrophin)
Corticotrophin (ACTH)
Growth hormone (HGH, somatotrophin)
All the respective releasing factors of the above-mentioned substances also are
banned.
Erythropoietin (EPO)


The following is a definition of positive for this list.
• For Caffeine – if the concentration in urine exceeds 12 micrograms/ml
• For Testosterone – if the administration of testosterone or the use of any other
manipulation has the result of increasing the ratio of the total concentration of
testosterone to that of epitestosterone in the urine to greater that 6:1, unless
there is evidence that this ratio is due to a physiological or pathological
condition.

Friday, October 05, 2012

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Tuesday, October 02, 2012

Racehorse and Greyhound 'Dope' Testing | Greyhound Chromatography

In animal dope testing, as with human dope testing, the analyst must be aware of how a particular drug is metabolised. A drug will not usually be excreted in an unchanged or parent form and will have probably undergone some chemical modification such as oxidation or the addition of further chemical groups to the basic structure. These groups must often be removed in order to isolate the drug and can be removed either enzymatically or chemically.


Testosterone, for example, is primarily excreted from the horse as the glucuronide (i) and
sulphate (ii) conjugates (Figure 2). Both these side chains must be cleaved in order to isolate testosterone which is then derivatised for detection by GCMS. Derivatisation to the Mox TMS (methoxime-trimethylsilyl) derivative of testosterone gives rise to a chromatogram with sharp peaks from which can be obtained a distinctive mass spectrum.

See the full article at:

http://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/biotech/12B.pdf

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